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The right to national self-determination is a cornerstone of international law. Notwithstanding, the Spanish authorities have not complied with international law, nor with the recommendations of international organizations, nor by ceasing the violations of human rights. Europe Catalonia's independence movement — a brief history The desire of many Catalans to gain independence from Spain has a long history. Since Spain’s constitutional court overturned this statute in 2010, the regional government has tried unsuccessfully to have it renegotiated, which fueled demands for an independence referendum. FOR INDEPENDENCE FOR CATALONIA: AGAINST INDEPENDENCE FOR CATALONIA 1. Critics say that increasing the limited autonomy that the region was given in 1978, after the death of General Francisco Franco, will encourage other regions to press for more powers - … Explore the pros and cons of the debate Catalonia deserves the independence. Catalonia: A New Independent State in Europe examines the main issues of the political process which is taking place in Catalonia today. Constitutional Court Ruling 137/2010, of the 16th December, on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (BOE no. In the late 15th century, Aragon united by marriage with the Crown of Castile to form what would later become Kingdom of Spain. Debating Period. Kick off each morning with coffee and the Daily Brief (BYO coffee). Even though he is no fan of the term “molecular gastronomy,” the Catalan father of the movement, Ferran Adrià, is lauded as one of the most important chefs of all time. Catalonia. Furthermore, during the last decade Catalan people and institutions have been suffering the consequences of centralizing policies by the Spanish state, which tries to assimilate both our culture and language while absorbing all economic and political power. Nor is there a clear majority in favour in Catalonia itself. OPINIONS. Nor should there be now. Catalan is recognized as an official language just like Spanish. To begin with, it is not clear that Catalans constitute a ‘nation’ or a ‘people’ with a right to statehood. For all these reasons I believe that the Catalans, a people that has always expressed itself through peaceful means, has the right to decide its political future in a free and democratic manner. Catalans don’t dance flamenco and they’ve banned bullfighting as cruel and barbaric. They’re such an integral part of the local festivals that the towers, or “castells” as they’re known, also have UNESCO World Heritage status. Catalonia certainly has a distinctive history, language and culture. Sources: Encyclopaedia Britannica, The Atlantic. The region already enjoys a wide degree of autonomy … The campaign for Catalan independence rests on a simple proposition: as a matter of history, culture, language, and contemporary political and economic realities, the ‘Catalan nation’ has the right to self-determination which it should exercise by seceding from Spain and establishing an independent, democratic state within the EU. Franco ruled Spain until 1975, but the Catalans’ strong sense of identity wasn’t beaten, and the language survived his reign. The pro-autonomy Convergence and Union party was founded the following year, and it served as the dominant political force in Catalonia over subsequent decades. Everyone’s invited to pile onto the human tower, and towns compete with each other as to who can form the highest one. The Spanish region of Catalonia is set to hold a referendum on independence on October 1. During the 2017 Catalan independence referendum, the world witnessed the brutal action of the Spanish police against peaceful voters in polling stations. People of Catalonia love to climb on each other’s shoulders and form huge human towers. Challenge Period. © 2021 Quartz Media, Inc. All rights reserved. We asked two experts to debate about student loans cancellation. Add to My Favorites Report this Debate … The relevance of NATO in 2020 is being questioned. In 2014 there was an unofficial referendum (with an estimated turn out of 37-41%) on independence in which 80 per cent of voters said they wanted Catalonia to be an independent state. The political confrontation between the Spanish and Catalan institutions has now reached the international arena, especially the debates concerning international recognition of a new Catalan state and its membership of the European Union (EU) and … Adrià’s elBulli restaurant in the little town of Roses, Catalonia, was a pilgrimage site for foodies, and regularly voted best restaurant in the world, before Adrià shut it down in 2011—but only so he could get back into his science lab and eventually open some new restaurants. Questions around nationhood, tax autonomy, international representation and policy powers are at the heart of Sunday's violence-marred independence referendum in Catalonia, Spain's wealthiest region. We’ve taken a look at a few of the aspects of the region that make it unique, from its language, to its pioneering achievements in art, architecture, gastronomy—and human towers. A hot topic of the 2020 US elections, student debt is an issue for many Americans. Spain is becoming a rogue State for the sake of denying its national minorities the exercise of their right to self-determination. Catalonia officials say … Catalonia’s fiercely independent people won’t be ready to give in easily—their struggle for independence is centuries old, and complex. DEBATES. This statute gives it substantial autonomy, allowing it, among other things, to form its own parliament and to elect a president (head of government) and an executive council. After much debate between Catalan leaders and the government of Spain a statute of autonomy was agreed to in 1979. The new Statute of Autonomy was approved by 73.2% of voters in a referendum held in Catalonia in June, and came into force in August. Independence would not make it more free. But, otherwise, the prerequisites for secession are not even close to being satisfied anywhere on the continent, particularly in the EU. ... Catalonia deserves the independence. It’s a joint-official language with Spanish, and public servants are mandated to use it. These include German reunification, the amicable divorce between the Czechs and Slovaks, and the fragmentation of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. The independence movement was strengthened when the Spanish Constitutional Court annulled 14 articles of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia in 2006. The names of the Catalan representatives were not on the list transmitted by the Spanish authorities since they had not traveled to Spain to take the oath. 16, of 19.01.2011). Under article 2 of the Constitution, the referendum is deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court. POLLS. Catalan identity can already be freely expressed. Its levels of autonomy - like those of other Spanish regions - have varied over time.During the 20th century dictatorship of General Franco, the culture, language and identity of Cat… While the Catalan Parliament voted Spain’s declaration of independence, the Spanish Senate jointly granted extraordinary powers over Catalonia to the President of the Spanish government, Mariano Rajoy. Brexit has also added momentum to the case for Scottish independence. image caption Catalonia's future is uncertain, with the region divided over independence Until recently, Barcelona was a city best known for its football, architecture, climate, and culture. Should gun control be strengthened in the United States? Taking all of the above into consideration, the Spanish Kingdom has no legal base to deny the Catalan people their right to self-determination. Catalonia was granted an autonomous status in the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and in the organic laws dating from 1979 and 2006. One of the key figures in Catalonian Modernism, architect Antoni Gaudí, born in 1852, put Catalonia on the map, transforming Barcelona into a capital of architectural inspiration, and massively influencing generations of designers and artists. These are some of our most ambitious editorial projects. As this decision changed considerably the status of the region, it spurred the Catalan people’s unrest. Economic development has favored the cultural renewal of Catalonia and a return of linguistic and nationalist demands. Catalonia is a region located in the northeast of Spain, on the border of France and Andorra. Gaudí’s biographer Gijs van Hensbergen told 60 Minutes this year that what made Gaudi unique was how he saw space. Catalonia’s push for independence is far from new. The right to self-determination is established in Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations, as well as at the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Organisers said 90% of … Calls for complete independence grew steadily until July 2010, when the Constitutional Court in Madrid overruled part of the 2006 autonomy statute, stating that there is no legal basis for recognising Catalonia as a nation within Spain. Sources: EURACTIV, Ouest-France, Euronews, Constitution of 1978, Chair, Catalan National Assembly and Economics Professor at the University of Barcelona. The independence issue took center stage as Spain's leading politicians debated the Catalan separatist movement ahead of Sunday's vote. Repression continued afterwards, as numerous fundamental human rights of the Catalans have been violated as testified by international organizations such as Amnesty International. The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya. The reference to a Catalan nation became unconstitutional. This article recognizes “nationalities and regions” the right to “claim autonomy”, but sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people alone, because the Spanish nation is an “indissoluble unit”. Voting Period. Following these events, 10,000 Catalans expressed their dissatisfaction in front of the European Parliament, during the constitutive plenary session on July 2. Today, it is strongly tied to a sense of national identity and pride. Enjoy! Salvador Dalí, one of the fathers of surrealist art, was born in Figueres, Catalonia in 1904. In a heated debate on RT, former pro-independence Catalan MP Carles Prats challenged the pro-unionist political scientist Ruben Tamboleo over the validity of Catalonia's proclaimed split from Madrid, who in turn, stripped the region of its autonomy. After scenes of jubilation on the streets of the Catalan capital Barcelona yesterday, the stage is now set for major tensions as Madrid starts to take back control of the region. It is difficult, however, to make a convincing case for an independence referendum, let alone a ‘Yes’ vote should one be held. Constitutional Court Ruling 138/2010, of the 16th December, on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (BOE no. Your email address will not be published. By providing your email, you agree to the Quartz Privacy Policy. My Debates. Despite revoking its powers, Madrid will be obliged to give Catalonia further autonomy eventually. In the late-1930s, dictator Francisco Franco cracked down on Catalan autonomy and banned the Catalan language. CATALONIA IS NOT SPAIN. Catalonia's regional parliament has voted in favor of independence from Spain, ahead of a vote in the Spanish Senate to seize Catalan region's autonomous powers | NewsBytes As this decision changed considerably the status of the region, it spurred the Catalan people’s unrest. Aside from the hollow formal trappings of statehood, such as a flag, an anthem, parades and national holidays – and sparing, particularly the more prosperous sectors of Catalan society, from paying taxes to the Spanish exchequer – it is not even clear what the benefits of independence would be. FORUMS. (The BBC has a handy timeline, dating back to the 9th century). These movements resurfaced in the 19th century as the region was experiencing strong industrialization. There is little or no support in Spain for Catalan independence. Article 93 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution establishes that Spain must act in a way that complies with the content of international treaties signed by Spain, including the above. Catalans might be part of Spain with the current borders, but the culture is unique when compared to the rest of the country. News Spain: Sanchez, Casado clash on Catalonia during TV debate. Half-chef, half-scientist, his development of radical cooking techniques, such as spherification—turning liquid into spheres usually using sodium alginate, so it looks like little balls of roe—revolutionized the texture, taste, and presentation of food. Catalan is distinctly different from Spanish—that much quickly becomes clear on anyone’s first visit to Barcelona. The Principality of Catalonia was an entity of the Crown of Aragon, created by the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon in 1137. 1. Should student debt be cancelled in the United States. You won’t find a preference for flamenco when you visit the region. Catalonia formally declared its independence from Spain on Friday (Oct. 27) and the central government in Madrid hit back within hours, stripping the region of all its autonomy. independence that would be granted to Catalonia, despite the opposition of ERC, which favoured full independence, and the PP, which claimed that the statute violated the Constitution. Dalí’s depictions of the warped images of his dreams and subconscious shook up the art world. Spain could opt to give Catalonia more autonomy in return for the region remaining part of Spain. “He’s someone who reinvented the language of architecture, which no other architect has ever managed to do,” van Hensbergen said. But there is no international legal right to secede. This repression has included the criminalization of dissidence, censorship in media and internet, lawfare, police brutality, the disqualification of democratically elected public officials, as well as the jailing of political representatives and civil society leaders, including Ms Carme Forcadell and Mr Jordi Sànchez, the former Presidents of the organization I represent. On October 1, 2017, Catalonia voted in a referendum to declare its independence. Plans to let the people of the eastern region break away from Spain has led to months of constitutional debate. Catalonia has already taken the steps to ban bullfighting because the population sees the practice as being barbaric and cruel. Secession is only permitted as a last resort where a national minority suffers from the legacy of colonialism or the systematic and egregious violation of basic human rights. The Refurmdum was passed in 2017, there is no need for another one. The situation in Catalonia is unresolved. 16, of 19.01.2011). Independence. The costs of going it alone, at least in the short term, would also be considerable for both Spain and Catalonia. Catalonia has different cultural priorities than Spain. Nevertheless, the Spanish government and courts have been qualifying a Catalan referendum as illegal and unconstitutional, although this is just a masquerade to deny the fundamental rights of a national minority, while conducting a systematic campaign of repression against its members. The Court curtailed 27 and stuck down 14 articles of the Statute and declared the reference to ‘nation’ as having no legal effect, which caused immediate reactions in the region. However, he was denied access to the European Parliament and the allocation of his MEP badge. The defeat of the Catalans on September 11, 1714 resulted in the loss of their constitutions and their institutional system as the Principality of Catalonia. Required fields are marked *. It’s also compulsorily taught in schools. The establishment of democratic rule in Spain after Franco’s death did not lessen Catalonia’s desire for autonomy, and in September 1977 limited autonomy was granted to the region. Catalonia is a region in the Northeast corner of Spain that has a degree of autonomy within the Spanish Constitution but is also part of Spain. Catalonia formally declared its independence from Spain on Friday (Oct. 27) and the central government in Madrid hit back within hours, stripping the region of all its autonomy. The current push for independence, however, has its roots in Catalonia’s 2006 Statute of Autonomy. Meanwhile, the region’s now-ex-president, Carles Puigdemont, is in Belgium, where he styles himself ‘head of a government in exile’. His stunning, still unfinished Sagrada Familia basilica in Barcelona draws millions of visitors each year, and is just one of the seven Gaudi works that are on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Catalonia is a region of northeastern Spain: it's home to Barcelona, 7.5 million people, and a proud tradition of independence dating back nearly 1,000 years.Although officially part of Spain since the state was created, the region has its own language and cultural identity. This region gathers 15% of the Spanish population and concentrates 20% of the GDP. When the Franco regime ended it was decided that Catalonia should have autonomy. At The Rift, we believe in people, in individuals. The effects of the ruling are indicated in this document as follows: In September 2015, the legislative elections in Catalonia ended with a pro-independence majority in power. Europe has undergone various nation-state realignments since the end of the Cold War. It’s in part due to the Barcelona native that we have foams, vapors, sands, and bursting pearls on our plates today. The regional government already has a measure of self-determination that has been reasonably successful, even after the sometimes brutal att… No less than 2,850 Catalan activists and elected representatives have suffered persecution by Spanish authorities since 2017. Its capital is Barcelona, ​​and it is also the 6th most populated territory in the European Union. Start a New Debate. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. These documents recognize Catalonia as a Generality – an autonomous region within the Spanish State. The leaders of the independence movement, including Carles Puigdemont, fled to Belgium in order to avoid criminal repression. The War of the Spanish Succession followed (1701-1714) during which the Catalan army fought against Bourbon King Philippe V to defend the claim of the Habsburg Crown on the throne of Spain. This will be discussed in more detail in the background section. 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