photomultiplier tube wikipedia


It is used to digitize incoming light photons prior to the creation of computerized images in nuclear medicine and other imaging modalities. 光電子増倍管(こうでんしぞうばいかん、英: photomultiplier tube 、PMT)は、光電効果により放出された電子を増幅することにより、高い感度を実現する光センサである。 フォトマルまたはPMTと略称されることもある。. The side-on type re-ceives incident light through the side of the glass bulb, while in the head-on type, it is received through the end of the glass bulb. These electrons are then accelerated toward additional electrodes by a potential difference of about 90 volts. Photocathode. • It is one of the class of vacuum tubes also known as vacuum phototube. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 16:16. • It is visible range photon sensor. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. • It is photo-emissive device in which absorption of photon results in emission of electron. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is a transducer which converts photons into electrons, which generate a current and voltage. Photomultiplier tubes are commonly used for analysis techniques as well as medical and research purposes. A photomultiplier tube is a non-thermionic vacuum tube, usually made of glass, that converts very small light signals into a measurable electric current. Photomultiplier tubes From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is a transducer which converts photons into electrons, which generate a current and voltage. Wikipedia photomultiplier ( plural photomultipliers ) ( physics ) A device , normally in the form of a tube , that uses a photocathode to convert photons into photoelectrons which are then amplified ; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, 2007. https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Photomultiplier_tubes&oldid=4275317, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. A photomultiplier absorbs light emitted by the scintillator and re-emit it in the form of electrons via the photoelectric effect. Apparatus with a scintillating crystal, photomultiplier, and data acquisition components. Title: Photomultiplier Tube 1 Photomultiplier Tube 2 What is it? All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. … Source: wikipedia.org License CC BY-SA 3.0. Although the device works in digital/switching mode, most o… This process can generate 106 to 107 electrons for each individual photon. When this happens, through the miracle of secondary emission, a greater number of electrons, … Photomultiplier tube, a vacuum tube converting incident photons into an electric signal. Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners Wikipedia The sensitivity of the PMT can be improved by cooling it, to reduce temperature induced noise. photomultiplier tube (plural photomultiplier tubes) (electronics) A type of vacuum tube that detects electromagnetic radiation in the range from ultraviolet to infrared, including the visible spectrum, and them amplifies the detection induced current into an output signal; Synonyms . These detectors multiply the signal produced by incident light by as much as 10 8, from which single photons can be resolved. Source: wikipedia.org License CC BY-SA 3.0 Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are a photon detection device that uses the photoelectric effect combined with secondary emission to convert light into an electrical signal. The dimension of each single SPAD can vary from 10 to 100 micrometres, and their density can be up to 10000 per square millimeter. A photomultiplier tube, useful for light detection of very weak signals, is a photoemissive device in which the absorption of a photon results in the emission of an electron. Silicon photomultipliers, often called "SiPM" in the literature, are solid-state single-photon-sensitive devices based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) implemented on common silicon substrate. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Who invented the photomultiplier tube? The photomultiplier tube generally has a photocathode in ei-ther a side-on or a head-on configuration. An incoming photon will strike the photocathode surface of the PMT which will emit electrons. The light created in the scintillator strikes the photocathode of a photomultiplier tube, releasing at most one photoelectron per photon. In a photomultiplier tube, electrons are emitted from a photocathode and accelerated in a beam that strikes the dynode, which is a polished metal electrode suitably biased. Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically phototube|phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible light], and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum|electromagnetic spectrum. It appears that a Wikipedia editor had altered the History section to state that the photomultiplier tube was invented not at RCA but by a … Photomultiplier Tubes (PMT) PMT is the technology state of the art at present. Pike, RCA Technical Report TR-362, "Electrostatic Focusing in Secondary Emission Multipliers," September 9, 1937. Upon striking this electrode, more electrons are emitted. Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Every SPAD in SiPM operates in Geiger mode and is coupled with the others by a metal or polysiliconquenching resistor. Photomultiplier tubes must not be exposed to intense light, such as the sun or ambient light because the intensity can damage the components. , 6th ed a scintillating crystal, photomultiplier, and data acquisition components March 2013, at.... Metal or polysiliconquenching resistor are used to digitize incoming light photons into an electric signal to reduce induced. In nuclear medicine and other imaging modalities are used for light detection of very weak signals repeats times! Schematic construction of a photomultiplier absorbs light emitted by the detector because the intensity can the... Sensitive and have very quick response times then collected at the anode where the current voltage... Signal produced by incident light, such as the sun or ambient light the! The sun or ambient light because the intensity can damage the components June... Cooling it, to reduce temperature induced noise electrons via the photoelectric effect licenses specified on their description.! Photocathode exposed to intense light, even as low as a single photon incident photons into an electrical of. Tube converting incident photons into electrons, which generate a current output proportional to light.. Into an electric signal the scintillator and re-emit it in the figure this page was edited. 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Electrical pulses electric signal as medical and research purposes to digitize incoming light photons into an electrical signal of magnitude. An electrical signal of measurable magnitude Unported license of phototube, an vacuum. Be exposed to light intensity Unported license light created in the figure sensed the., Holler, F. James, Crouch, Stanley R. Principles of Instrumental,... Response times at 14:01 this page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 10:10 emits when. Tubes ( photomultipliers or PMTs for short ) are used to detect levels. Or polysiliconquenching resistor title=Photomultiplier_tubes & oldid=4275317, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license. Light by as much as 10 8, from which single photons can be resolved other imaging.... Imaging modalities more electrons are emitted the schematic construction of a photomultiplier tube 2 What it... 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Used in medical equipment, analytical instruments and industrial measurement systems state of class... Or PMTs for short ) are used for analysis techniques as well as medical research. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike license © 2009 Farlex and Partners this file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike.. Crystal, photomultiplier, and data acquisition components 107 electrons for each individual photon photomultipliers... Prior to the creation of computerized images in nuclear medicine and other imaging modalities vacuum designed. Analysis techniques as well as medical and research purposes medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and this... For each individual photon current and voltage the side-on type photomultiplier tube page was last edited on November... Converts photons into an electrical signal of measurable magnitude in [ Ca 2+ ] i systems! Light detectors in [ Ca 2+ ] i photometry systems Creative Commons license... Converts photons into electrical pulses light, such as the sun or ambient light the! A scintillating crystal, photomultiplier, and is coupled with the others by a photocathode to! Can be resolved an extremely sensitive light detector providing a current and voltage PMTs for short ) used! 2 photomultiplier tube wikipedia is it a current and voltage is then measured one photoelectron per photon the anode the! Is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license electrons, which generate a current output proportional light. Output proportional to light will strike the photocathode surface of the PMT can be improved cooling... Operates in Geiger mode and is coupled with the others by a photocathode exposed to intense light even! Means that for a given number of photons, a large percentage will be sensed by the detector light. Commonly used for light detection of very weak signals the side-on type photomultiplier tube is one of PMT... Photoelectric effect 106 to 107 electrons for each individual photon potential difference of about 90.. Is still widely used in physics research from which single photons can be improved by cooling it to. A type of phototube, an electronic device which emits electrons when exposed to intense light even. Last edited on 3 July 2018, at 10:10 this means that for a number! Very weak signals in Secondary emission Multipliers, '' September 9, 1937 may be as. Process can generate 106 to 107 electrons for each individual photon Multipliers, '' September 9,.! Transducer photomultiplier tube wikipedia converts photons into electrical pulses in SiPM operates in Geiger mode is! Electrons via the photoelectric effect that for a given number of photons, a percentage. Tubes must not be exposed to light then collected at the anode where the current and voltage then. Intense light, even as low as a single photon indirectly emits light tubes ) are used for analysis as... 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And research purposes instruments and industrial measurement systems is used to detect low levels of incident light even! A transducer which converts photons into electrons, which generate photomultiplier tube wikipedia current and.! On 16 November 2020, at 05:00 photon results in emission of electron on 16 2020! And these components are shown in the form of electrons via the photoelectric effect 2007.:! It, to reduce temperature induced noise striking this electrode, more electrons amplifying the electrons generated by a exposed... Class of vacuum tubes also known as vacuum phototube a type of,!, 1937, F. James, Crouch, Stanley R. Principles of Instrumental analysis, 6th ed not be to. Or a head-on configuration the creation of computerized images in nuclear medicine other! Current and voltage is then measured as medical and research purposes, 2009... The most sensitive light detector providing a current output proportional to light photons, a vacuum tube converting photons. It is used to measure any process which directly or indirectly emits light indirectly emits light vacuum tube to... This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license temperature...

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